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Wildlife Reservoirs, is the badger a costly distraction, a scapegoat ...?



 Added by  Thomas (Guest)
 22 Jul 2010, 6:43 PM


Prof John Bourne, who conducted the infamous ten year, government-funded study which showed that badger killing is a waste of time and money, recalled what he was told by a senior politician:
 
"Fine, John, we accept your science, but we have to offer farmers a carrot. And the only carrot we can possibly give them is culling badgers."
 
This strand on the forum deals mainly with the wildlife reservoirs involved in the bovine TB saga. In the UK this is, as we are probably all aware by now, believed to be mainly the badger. No other mammal has been studied in the UK as intensely as the badger so actually we don't really know just how other animals are implicated. In other countries different species are implicated. There are some anomalies too, including the example below.
 
Has anyone an explanation for the following!
 
According to last issue of Gwlad, Australia is now bTB free after 27 years of trying. We are told it has no wildlife reservoir. New Zealand is still aiming for eradication. It has a wildlife reservoir - possums - which are considered a pest species as not indigenous so are being culled - and vaccinated!
 
HOWEVER - possums ARE native to Australia and bTB was rife in country for years so - why are the Australian possums not a reservoir?

Sally
A large scale of cull of badgers has been ruled out as part of a "refreshed" approach to tackling TB in cattle in Wales.
Ministers will consider whether to allow cage-trapping and killing by injection of infected badgers found on affected farms.
 
Individual action plans will be developed for farms with long-term bovine TB issues.
 
Other measures involve deeper and more sensitive testing of herds.
 
But Wales' chief vet stressed there would be no "large scale, indiscriminate cull of badgers" - and any infected badgers found would be dealt with humanely.
 
On Tuesday, the Welsh Government unveiled new plans which include dividing up Wales into different areas with low, intermediate and high incidence of the disease.
 
Pembrokeshire, Carmarthenshire and counties alongside the border with England will be classed as "high", while north west Wales is classified as "low".
 
A tailored approach will be developed to reflect the varying disease conditions and risks.
The aim is to try and avoid the disease from spreading to north west Wales and to work towards eradicating it in areas of high prevalence.
 
During a 12-week consultation, the Welsh Government will seek views on the measures that should be applied to each area.
 
For farms where there are persistent breakdowns, individual action plans will be developed in partnership with farmers, vets and the Animal and Plant Health Agency.
 
From: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-37679272
These would involve investigating farming practices.
 
Sally
The very costly and publicly unpopular badger cull is NOT evidenced based so why is the current government supporting it?
 
The culled badgers are not being tested to see if they have bTB.. In fact it is known, from previous researchm, that very few badgers actually do have bTB.
 
It is interesting to note that NZ recently was forced, due to a FOIA action, to release their statistics, having tested each and every possum that was culled. It turns out that of 124,000 possums killed over a 10 year period, 54 of them were infectious. The wildlife cull was meaningless and ineffective, and only farming measures that were implemented alongside the cull, effected any reduction in bTB.
 
Sally
The Fate of the Badger': the great badger scapegoating conspiracy - republished.
 
Thirty years ago, there was no evidence that badgers spread bovine TB among cattle, writes Lesley Docksey. Nor is there now. Yet badgers are still being slaughtered in a futile attempt to control the disease. This timely republication of Richard Meyer's 1986 book reveals the belligerent ignorance of the officials, politicians and farmers driving the failed policy.
 
www.theecologist.org/reviews/2988189/the_fate_of_the_badger_the_great_badger_scapegoating_conspiracy. html
 
Sally
Dear Prime Minister, Minister, DEFRA, 3rd October 2016
 
1986 must have been a good year for badgers, with the publication of the magnificent eulogy to badger watching in Chris Ferris's Field Journal of a Night Naturalist, Richard Meyer's Fate of the Badger (new edition just out), and Ernest Neal's 2nd edition of The Natural History of Badgers (including my tooth wear age criteria), Michael Clarks, Badgers Whittet was 1988, new edition very shortly.
Having been a keen badger man since c. 1959, I saw 4 & 7 last night, 6 on the 30th Sept., and 5 + 7 at 2 setts the 29th, including 3 boisterous cubs reoccupying their main over-wintering breeding sett, and . But, they were mostly just white blurs , at the very Edge of Darkness.
So , it is difficult to see how farmer coalitions will have been able to cull up to 14, 213 badgers from 4090 sq.km. over the last 4-5 weeks since the pre-bank holiday announcement on the 30th of August of 7 New Pilot Culls + 3 Consultations of how to stop the spread of bovine TB (by bovines .. the 3 Pilot culls so far 2013-2015, Glos. Somerset, Dorset, removed 3943 badgers, maybe 50 or so of the infectious super-excretor type which might have been a risk to cattle , from 790 sq.km., contrasting with 112,500 cattle for this same period). DEFRA News 30th Aug. :-
https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/bovine-tuberculosis-bovine-tb Click to Badger control value for money 2016,
Minimum and maximum numbers* required for Natural England Licences, Authorisation for 7 Pilots (BUT actual areas redacted).. Hence:-
Area 1. GLOS, 2 SOM'ST, 3 DORSET //4 CORNWALL, 5 CORNWALL, 6 DEVON, 7 DEVON, 8 DORSET, 9 GLOS.,10 HEREFORD
*Max.No. 642 544 610 1763 1187 2609 1949 1740 1986 1183
sq.km. 311 256 223 400 300 600 500 500 700 300
total 1796 from 790 sq.km. ................// & 12,417 FROM 3300 sq.km. // TOTAL OVERALL 14,213 from 4090 sq.km.
I would be surprised if they will have managed to cull more than 2000 or so, way below the mythical 70 % target.
And whilst Meurig Raymond and the NFU were delighted, that this "science based cull" has now been extended to the 10 most critical areas ; WITH quite likely the Welsh Asembly WILL have voted 28th September, for an IAA Cull next year since the vaccine trial has been a total waste of money £5 million , 4500 badgers, Nil Effect on cattle TB .............in fact 4090 sq.km. is actually a tiny area within the southwest problem area:- CLICK to Map in 4 below .. Devon/Cornwall Salcombe & Padstow, Bude, Dorset nr Dorchester..
A rather Costly Exercise ? The above Value for money 2016 analysis, reveals the rather bizarre notion that culls will perhaps cost c. £ 2.03 million, to achieve a net saving of prevented herd breakdowns of around £0.56 million, which does not seem terribly cost-effective. The key imponderable is the cost of Extra Policing, which might run to £610,000 / area ... the 3 pilots so far cost c. £25 million with £7 million in extra policing, so these 10 pilots weill have probably cost over £30 million. Very strikingly, the Value assessment 30th Aug. notes :-
""Evidence on the effect of removing badgers on the incidence of TB in cattle from the three licence areas is not yet available to inform this assessment "" .. which is Odd, IF the cull were really going to achieve a 50 % reduction in cattle TB, then surely there ought to be a hint of this by now.. there was no evidence of perturbation either. In fact the £50 million RBCT cull of 11,000 badgers had NIL Effect on cattle TB, accumulated breakdowns in reactive cull versus no cull areas 356 VS 358 (Lefevre 2005, in ISG 2007).
 
So the need for culls and supposed proof that they work are all based on a DUBYA total "MISUDERESTIMATION" of the reality (CLICK to 2 & 3) . Sad that these "science-based" cull ideas are based on such dodgy pseudoscience.. and DEFRA, seem to be unaware that Donnelly 2013 downgraded the badger contribution to cattle TB from 50 % to 5.7 % .. OR Actually see bottom of Table 2 in 1 below, a mere 3.7 % with confidence interval of 0 to 100 % ie. the badger input is probably ZERO since no-one in 50 years has actually explained how badgers might give cows a respiratory lung infection (CLICK to links 5 & 6 below ).
 
In conclusion, I cannot help wondering whether allowing Natural England to licence these 10 Pilot culls, with wildly impractical and unachievable targets, has been a very clever way of getting farmers, vets, and country landowner pro-cull factions to do a selfie U-TURN , and call the whole omnishambles off .. any further badger culls or vaccinations are an utterly pointless waste of time and money , which will never have the slightest effect on stopping the spread of TB , since the spread has been within the cattle population all along ! An insane solution to an utterly non-existent problem.
sincerely, Martin Hancox, ex-government TB Panel
 
SEE 15 Sep. http://m.stroudnewsandjournal.co.uk/news/14745937.Readersletter
 
 
1. DONNELLY 2013 http://currents.plos.org/outbreaks/article/the-contribution-of-badger-to-cattle-tb-incidence-in-high-cattle-incidence-areas/
Badgers with TB have merely been a Spillover from cows all along , the most TB badgers hence arose in the 3 Triplets recruited into the RBCT/Krebs culling trial AFTER the foot & mouth 2001 lack of cattle testing jump in cattle TB D ,I, J .
Table 1 , based on Woodroffe 2005, RBCT proactive areas, re. 1 triplet, 2 herd breakdowns & 3 reactors in previous year , 4 TB badgers from 1st cull :-
1. A B C D E F G H I J /TOTALS
2. 8 15 8 11 4 4 7 11 15 8 91 confirmed cattle herd breakdowns
3. 57 70 62 187 34 14 23 36 154 215 852 cattle reactors
4. 8 13 14 102 29 13 29 12 82 65 357 TB badgers ......D , I , J the most TB badgers from worst cow TB
It is a perverse misuse of the science base to assume this cattle spillover TO badger transmission rate can inversely predict the hypothetical badger to cattle transmission risk.. besides, transmission in cattle TB is a respiratory broncho-pneumonia or "consumption", badger TB is a dietary ingestion "scrofula" like human TB from unpasteurised milk
 
Sally
To propose that the National Assembly for Wales:
 
Calls on the Welsh Government to take decisive action to tackle bovine TB by committing to use the most effective measures to control and eradicate bovine TB and ensuring that testing and movement restrictions are proportionate to the disease status of an area.
 
Full proceedings at:
 
http://www.assembly.wales/en/bus-home/pages/rop.aspx?meetingid=3993&assembly=5&c=Record%20of%20Proceedings#426782
 
Sally
The people risking arrest to stop the badger cull
 
Last month the government approved the culling of badgers in seven new areas of England. BBC News have spoken to two people from the legal - and illegal - sides of the campaign to stop it. These people are doing sterling work to try and protect an iconic British mammal that is being used as a political scapegoat in a policy that is flawed and not science-led.
 
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-devon-37496499
 
 
Sally
Labour will end the badger cull and prioritise ending bovine TB, Shadow Defra secretary Rachael Maskell has said.
 
Speaking during the party conference, Maskell said the government 'ignores scientists, academics, its own experts and many farmers' and turns its frustration on a badger.
 
"When every shred of evidence says bovine TB will be beaten with better testing, vaccination, better biosecurity and animal husbandry.
 
"Animal welfare is at the heart of what we all care about, whether our wildlife, domestically, commercially or internationally, protecting endangered species.
 
"With Labour launching our consultation on animal welfare, we want you to shape our policy for the future.
"But whether animals, birds or our plant life, Labour will work to ensure that our whole biodiversity system thrives again."
 
https://www.farminguk.com/News/Labour-pledge-to-end-badger-cull-Government-ignores-scient-_44273.html?platform=hootsuite
 
 
Sally
Latest scientific research casts yet more doubt on role of badgers in cattle TB
 
Research undertaken by Queen Mary University of London using the largest ever mathematical model profiling a huge number of cattle and badger TB infections has cast serious doubt on the role of badgers in transmitting TB to cattle.
 
Using a ‘big data approach’ the science has revealed that the infection pattern between the two species is completely different and suggests very strongly that cattle are infected by other cattle, rather than by other species.
 
The research found little geographical overlap between farms with infected cattle and setts with infected badgers, and that the cycles of infection between the two animals are not synchronised. In badgers TB was found in clusters whilst in cattle the disease was more random and dispersed.
 
The findings reflect the uncommonly high level of cattle movement in the UK not seen elsewhere in the world, resulting in TB being found in unrelated and geographically widespread areas. In comparison badgers are social animals that live in small groups meaning the presence of TB is far more clustered.
 
Responding to the new research Dominic Dyer, CEO of the Badger Trust said,
 
“This research builds on an ever increasing number of studies demonstrating that the contribution of badgers to the problem of cattle TB is tiny and cannot be separated from the general contamination of wildlife and the environment by the cattle industry.
 
We have already seen another study this year (Woodroffe, Donnelly et al 2016) showing conclusively that badgers actively avoid cattle in pasture and farm yards, and that cattle actively avoid feeding on grass where badgers urinate or defecate. Yet another study (Barbier et al, 2016) shows a significant disease risk as TB spreads from cattle faeces into the worm population where it can remain for significant lengths of time.
 
All in all, the case for continued intervention with the badger population is proving increasingly pointless. The reality is we could kill every badger in the country but bovine TB would continue to spread in cattle herds, due to inaccurate TB testing, excessive numbers of cattle movements and poor farm-level bio-security. It is modern, intensive livestock rearing and trading that are the real culprits in the spread of bovine TB.”
 
Badger Trust Chairman, Peter Martin added,
 
“The government and the farming industry have become dangerously obsessed with badgers whilst all along the real problem has been cattle infecting themselves both directly and through contaminating their own environment. The debate has been hijacked by politics and economics whilst the basic epidemiology of the disease has been ignored for far too long.
 
Millions of pounds taxpayer’s money has been wasted on ineffective and inhumane badger culls with millions more to come as the government rolls out its policy to new areas of the country. All this has been in the face of vehement opposition by scientists and the public. Badgers have become a convenient fig-leaf for concealing a chaotic and doomed policy that has failed to get to grips with effective testing, cattle movement controls and basic standards of hygiene and husbandry on farms.
 
The approach to TB science in Wales has been far more open and rigorous, and has led to the lowest level of new herd breakdowns in ten years. There they have proved that vaccinating badgers is a far more effective intervention than culling, a point reinforced by this latest research. However, any intervention involving badgers is going to have a negligible impact on cattle TB as no known research has ever shown exactly how the disease can spread from badgers to cattle. All the science to date is showing that it doesn’t.
 
“The Badger Trust is calling for an immediate halt to any further badger culling while all the new scientific evidence is collated and assessed, and the existing science re-examined to provide a sound basis for amending and improving the government’s currently inadequate TB policy. Anything less would be a betrayal of our farmers, the taxpayer, our wildlife and the principles of science.”
 
 
Sally
On Wednesday, Assembly Members will be debating the Welsh Government’s bovine tuberculosis policy.
 
Dr Gareth Enticott, a research fellow at Cardiff University has made some very interesting comments. His research focuses on the geography and sociology of animal health. He is interested in how farmers, vets, policy makers and conservationists deal with and make sense of animal health on a day to day basis and what this means for the future of animal health and rural places in the UK. He is particularly interested in bovine tuberculosis.
 
He is wondering of the debate is a subtle call for a (new) Welsh badger cull. The debate proposes that the National Assembly for Wales “takes decisive action to tackle bovine TB by committing to use the most effective measures to control and eradicate bovine TB and ensuring that testing and movement restrictions are proportionate to the disease status of an area”.
 
The motion is suitably vague and Gareth says 'The outcome of the debate and vote is more likely to show that it is not for nothing that bovine TB is known as the political disease'.
 
http://biosecurityresearch.blogspot.co.uk/2016/09/a-new-welsh-badger-cull.html
 
Sally
Yet more science to confirm the futility of badger culling.
 
 
Fasciola hepatica is associated with the failure to detect bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle
 
ABSTRACT
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a significant and intractable disease of cattle caused by Mycobacterium bovis. In the United Kingdom, despite an aggressive eradication programme, the prevalence of BTB is increasing with an unexplained, exponential rise in cases year on year. Here we show in a study involving 3,026 dairy herds in England and Wales that there is a significant negative association between exposure to the common, ubiquitous helminth parasite, Fasciola hepatica and diagnosis of BTB. The magnitude of the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test used to diagnose BTB is reduced in cattle experimentally co-infected with M. bovis and F. hepatica. We estimate an under-ascertainment rate of about one-third (95% confidence interval 27–38%) among our study farms, in the hypothetical situation of no exposure to F. hepatica. This finding may in part explain the continuing spread of BTB and the failure of the current eradication programme in the United Kingdom.
 
Info: http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v3/n5/full/ncomms1840.html
 
Sally
Badger Charity Appalled by Vets Political Support for Government Culls
 
The Badger Trust has reacted strongly against the British Veterinary Association’s (BVA) continued support for the government’s badger culls, which have been extended to seven new areas of England.
 
The new culls in Devon, Cornwall, Gloucestershire, Dorset and Somerset are licenced to kill up to 14,000 badgers despite overwhelming opposition from scientists and the public, and clear evidence the policy will not help farmers reduce bovine TB in English herds.
 
In April 2015 the BVA declared after the results of the first two years of badger culling in Gloucestershire and Somerset, that it could no longer support the continued use of free-shooting as a killing method, as it was both inhumane and ineffective.
 
Reacting to the decision, Badger Trust CEO, Dominic Dyer, said:
 
“This decision is simply incomprehensible given that the BVA has already condemned free-shooting as inhumane. They are fully aware that the government’s recently relaxed licencing conditions mean more badgers will be killed by this method than ever before so they are condemning thousands of animals to die long painful deaths from multiple gunshot wounds, blood loss and organ failure.
 
Furthermore the BVA’s support for culling is specifically for “humane, targeted and managed badger culling as an option to be used in carefully selected areas where badgers are regarded as a significant contributor to the persistent presence of bTB in cattle”. However, these culls are anything but ‘targeted’. None of the badgers are tested for TB and much of the culling is taking place on land where no cattle are farmed, so how can the BVA support these culls knowing full well they contravene the essential conditions their support is based on?
 
“The BVA is effectively giving tacit approval to an uncontrolled ‘numbers game’ that could lead to the complete extermination of badgers in some areas, which cannot possibly improve the situation for cattle farmers if the vast majority of badgers killed haven’t actually got TB and don’t live on cattle farms. Equally, we would like to know how they have satisfied themselves that badgers are a ‘significant contributor’ to TB in cattle because the latest science suggests they are not?
 
“All in all, the Badger Trust feels the BVA’s credibility as the voice of a veterinary industry that is supposed to put science and animal welfare at heart of its decision making process, is shot to pieces by this decision.”
 
Chair of the Badger Trust, Peter Martin, added:
 
“The BVA’s problems run much deeper than just the issue of free-shooting. Vets sign up to the principle of evidence based medicine, which means any intervention they take must be supported by evidence that the animal is sick and needs treatment. As the vast majority of badgers being culled are not TB positive, this kind of indiscriminate killing goes against the fundamental principles of veterinary practice.
 
“We have been contacted by many vets who are deeply troubled by this aspect of the culls especially as vaccination would achieve the same intended outcome without the suffering or deaths. Vets are not supposed to suggest a lethal intervention where an effective and more humane alternative treatment is available.
 
“The decision to support these culls also flies in the face of the BVA’s recently published Animal Welfare Strategy that has introduced a new ethical framework for the treatment of all animals, not just those in the paid care of individual vets. Clearly they are unwilling to heed their own advice.
 
“The only rational explanation for this decision is that the BVA has given in to internal pressure from the Chief Vet Nigel Gibbens and the British Cattle Veterinary Association to back the extension of badger culling for political reasons, and to protect their economic interests. I think the public will be appalled when they realise that the veterinary industry they have come to trust and rely on is more motivated by money and influence than they are by the welfare of animals.”
 
 
Sally
Email from DH 31/8/16
It costs almost £7000 to kill each badger and yet I read in the i today that 4.1% of the UK population can not afford to feed themselves. This money could be much better spent surely. The cull is NOT based on science, is inhumane, not monitored – a real muddle and I’m being polite.
 
I watched Yes Minister last night first aired in 1980. It was focused on a badger cull – or was it beaver cull?.I thought that Yes Minister was a sit com but now appreciate that it is a serious documentary on how the Government and Civil service run (?) the country. Things have not changed.
 
Sally
Rosy Woodroffe, one of the top badger experts has tweeted 'Holy....cow. Cull companies are REQUIRED to kill at least 9,841 badgers by 30 Nov. More than all RBCT proactive culls put together'. And, at a cost to the taxpayer of over £6,000 per badger, this equates to a massive £59 million pounds plus when the science has proved that culling badgers does not work re preventing bTB.
 
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/aug/31/time-for-some-honesty-about-the-badger-cull
 
 
 
Sally
Badger Trust condemns decision to extend disastrous
badger cull to 5 new areas of England
 
The Badger Trust has condemned a decision by the government to expand badger culling to 5 new areas of the country (South Devon, North Devon, North Cornwall, South Herefordshire and West Dorset), despite the complete failure of the policy over the last 4 years.
 
Since 2013 the government has licensed the culling of 3,916 badgers in Gloucestershire, Somerset and Dorset at a cost to the taxpayer in excess of £25 million. None of the badgers killed have been tested for TB and many have died as a result of an experimental ‘free shooting’ method, which has been condemned as inhumane by both the government’s Independent Expert Panel and the British Veterinary Association.
 
DEFRA statistics show that despite killing thousands of badgers the number of cattle slaughtered for TB continues to rise both in and around the culling zones.
 
Responding to the government’s decision to extend the badger cull the CEO of the Badger Trust, Dominic Dyer, said:
 
“After 4 years of badger culling no one can now doubt that the policy has been a disastrous failure on scientific, cost and humaneness grounds. For the new DEFRA Secretary Andrea Leadsom to ignore the facts and extend this policy into 5 new areas of the country defies belief.
 
The badger cull is built on three pillars of sand, incompetence, negligence and deceit, and will ultimately collapse because it fails to address the key cause of bovine TB, which is cattle to cattle infection.
 
We could kill every badger in England but bovine TB would continue to spread in cattle herds, due to inaccurate TB testing, excessive numbers of cattle movements and poor biosecurity controls.”
 
The Chair of the Badger Trust, Peter Martin, said:
 
“The badger is being used as a scapegoat for failures in the modern intensive livestock industry that have led to a significant increase in bovine TB in cattle herds. Recent changes to the cull licencing regime have made it clear this policy is now just a ‘numbers game’ based on indiscriminate and untargeted killing of this protected wildlife species. They have abandoned any pretence of science or control.
 
We now have conclusive scientific evidence proving beyond doubt that badgers actively avoid cattle in pasture and farm yards, and that cattle avoid feeding on grass where badgers urinate or defecate. This effectively means that the likelihood of badgers passing TB to cattle within the farming environment is so low that it is impossible to distinguish it from any other potential environmental vector, including cattle themselves.
 
By extending the badger culls to 5 news areas of the country the taxpayer is now facing a bill in the region of £100 million by 2020 on a policy which will fail to deliver any significant reduction in bovine TB for livestock farmers.
 
The government in Westminster is using badgers as a political fig-leaf to mask its total failure to get to grips with bovine TB. They should be looking to Wales to see how they have waged a far more successful campaign against the disease, based on more rigorous TB testing, tighter cattle control and bio-security measures. New TB herd incidents in Wales are down by 14% in the last 12 months and all this has been achieved without culling badgers. And as Ireland is also about to abandon its cull policy in favour of vaccination it is way past the time for DEFRA to do the same.”
 
Sally
Rapid dissemination of Mycobacterium bovis from cattle ...
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378113516300256
Indirect transmission of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), between wildlife and livestock is thought to occur by inhalation.
 
Why are Badgers always at the head of the 'Blame Queue'?
www.theecologist.org
With the publication today of a new report that admits badgers tend to avoid direct contact with cattle, LESLEY DOCKSEY asks why are badgers still being blamed for bovine TB?
 
Expert, Martin Hancox, writes:
 
The whole 45 year old Badger TB Debate has been about the political perception of a rather feeble somewhat pseudoscientific "dodgy dossier" database. It rests on the very uncertain assumption that there must be a widespread self-sustaining reservoir of TB in badgers "out there" , with spillback to cattle, causing up to 50 % of new herd breakdowns, or only 5.7 % (ISG 2007, Donnelly 2013).
But the ISG's own data failed to notice that there has never been any such widespread "maintenance badger TB reservoir". TB in badgers occurs as spillover micropockets of a few TB badgers in the clans at the epicentre of the previous herd breakdown eg. Woodchester, and Costello's finding of up to 3 M.bovis DNA Types / clan (ERAD Reports 1997, 2000, & 2006, Vet. Rec. 159;619, Biek 2012).
Out of 11,000 RBCT badgers culled, there were only 1515 with TB, and a mere 200 or so super-excretors from 1900 sq.km. So neither reactive or proactive culls had the slightest effect on cattle TB. Vial 2011, found 1306 proactive cull area herds yielded 343 confirmed breakdowns, 1320 reactive cull area herds yielded 403 breakdowns, and 1380 no cull area herds yielded 408 breakdowns .. if the proactive cull had actually halved cattle TB it should have been 152 breakdowns !
Strikingly, they found NIL Effect on unconfirmed breakdowns, because they were caused by unconfirmed reactors, NOT by badgers as widely assumed (ISG 2007, p. 96, 101). DEFRA's 2015 movement consultation very belatedly discovered that all these No Visible Lesion , hence unconfirmed Reactors do have TB, so Badgers are emphatically NOT, as mistakenly claimed by farmers, the main cause of the spread of TB...all down to local cattle movements, so pre and post-movement tests work.
 
And Woodroffe's latest proximity recorder study found no contacts between badgers and cattle at under 1.4 metres.. re-affirming previous studies finding that badgers avoid cattle at pasture and in farmyards (Benham 1989, Bohm 2009, Drewe 2012, O'Mahony 2014, Mullen 2013 & 2015) . So it is extremely improbable that badgers can give cows a respiratory lung infection. Woodroffe claims a dose of 5000 bacilli needed by ingestion, but even Palmer admitted that transmission in that white tail deer experiment might have actually been respiratory. And M'Fadyean 1910 found a dose of several hundred million bacilli needed... simply impossible with only 300,000 bacilli / ml of badger urine .. or under 100 cfu in Corners's study.
 
The recent French Barbier 2016 * study of earthworms as a perfect vector of TB suggests that badgers have merely been catching TB from cows all along. Francis 1947 found one really sick cow shed 38 million bacilli in 30 lbs of faeces / day. .. so Old Brock more or less guaranteed to catch TB foraging under cow pats for worms and Geotrupes beetles. Most badger TB is hence by ingestion with primary lesions in throat lymph nodes (submandibulars and retropharyngeals), just as in human "scrofula" from unpasteurised milk.
 
There is absolutely no point in culling or vaccinating dead-end spillover hosts of TB such as Badgers, Wild Boar, Red or White tail deer, or possums .. because it does not stop the spread of cattle TB by up to 20 million cattle movements / a, , and which have been catching TB from other cattle all along .
sincerely,
Martin Hancox, ex-government TB Panel.
 
 
 
Sally
BADGER TRUST POSITION STATEMENT ON NEW RESEARCH ON
BADGER AND CATTLE INTERACTION
 
The Badger Trust welcomes the publication of new research (Woodroffe, Donnelly et al, 2016) published on Friday, 6th of August, indicating that badgers have no meaningful contact with cattle but in fact go out of their way to avoid them in pastures and buildings. This is now the third major scientific study to reach the same conclusion and confirms what the Badger Trust, as well as leading zoologists and ecologists, have been saying for decades.
 
The rigour and accuracy of this new study confirms that there is no credible, direct link between cattle and badgers as regards the transmission of bovine TB, and that as yet unconfirmed environmental factors are implicated.
 
The study’s findings clearly have serious implications for the way the current TB crisis in farming is being dealt with by the government and cattle industry. The Trust considers the emphasis previously placed on wildlife interventions has been unjustifiably exaggerated at the expense of dealing with basic farm-level bio-security and cattle testing and controls.
 
The Badger Trust maintains that this study and other recent findings are beginning to suggest potentially serious flaws in the basic assumptions, interpretation of data and conclusions of previously published science implying that badgers play a significant role in the transmission of TB to cattle, and which are in turn being used to justify the current culls. Specifically the modelling of previous research has not given sufficient weight to the role of the wider TB environment created by cattle and the way they are farmed, or the possibility that they are not only continually infecting wildlife but also reinfecting themselves by the same route.
 
The Badger Trust is greatly concerned by some of the language used in this report that nevertheless continues to assert a definitive role for badgers in infecting cattle with TB whilst downplaying the obvious implication that the infection process is both remote and two-way. That is to say, badgers neither pass TB directly to cattle nor do they catch TB directly from cattle but from the environment in which cattle exist. This calls into question the previously asserted notion that there is a self-sustaining reservoir of TB in badgers and places the focus for disease prevention correctly back on cattle and farming practices.
 
As with most scientific studies, more questions are raised than answers given. Far from being a significant contributor to the levels of TB in cattle it appears that badgers are simply one of many elements in a broad spectrum of possible reinfection vectors in the TB environment created by cattle farming. These must include not only all mammals, vertebrates and invertebrates, but also - critically - cattle themselves.
 
We are now facing a pivotal moment when all stakeholders in this debate need to recognise that a fundamental re-examination of the scientific assumptions on which the current policy for TB control in cattle is urgently needed. There is simply too much to lose by failing to do so, including the future of the cattle and dairy industry, millions of pounds of taxpayer’s money and the lives of tens of thousands of animals.
 
The Badger Trust is therefore calling for an immediate suspension of all badger culling whilst a comprehensive review is undertaken so that the current policy can be amended and improved in light of the latest scientific developments. It is also vital to identify any significant gaps in the science and to commission new research to fill them.
 
Sally
"Badger protection march comes to Bodmin on Saturday 13 August as badger cull expected to start in Cornwall in a few weeks”
 
A peaceful, family friendly protest against the government's unpopular badger cull policy will come to Bodmin in Cornwall on Saturday 13 August.
 
Organised by the Badger Trust, with the support of the Devon Badger Group, this will be the 39th protest march against the badger cull policy held in towns and cities across England over the last 2 and a half years.
 
Speakers will include leading anti-cull spokesperson Dominic Dyer, CEO of the Badger Trust, Vet Mark Jones from the Born Free Foundation, and William Morris, a former Independent Candidate for Devon and Cornwall Police Commissioner.
 
Dominic Dyer, CEO Badger Trust, said:
 
"I've worked in the agriculture and food industry for most of my career, and this is the worst agricultural policy I've seen in 30 years. I'm sympathetic to farmers, but culling badgers simply won't work. Ordinary people from around the country have come out to protest against this barbaric cull, and we're looking forward to seeing many of them come to Bodmin on Saturday.
 
“The badger cull has been a complete disaster on scientific, cost and humaneness grounds. To date three years of badger culling in West Somerset and West Gloucestershire and Dorset has cost the tax payer over £25 million to kill 3,961 badgers or £6311 per badger killed, the most expensive wildlife cull of its kind on record.
 
However the real scandal is that nearly all the badgers killed will not have TB. Defra’s own data suggests 1.6% are capable of passing on the disease, whilst 85% are likely to have to have been completely TB free.
 
Sally
Badger Trust condemns Lady Scarsdale article in Telegraph as
Irresponsible Propaganda
 
The Badger Trust has condemned a recent article in the Daily Telegraph as ‘irresponsible propaganda’. The piece featured an interview with Helene, Viscountess Scarsdale who claims that badgers are responsible for killing up to 200 lambs on her land and included the statement "We need to get rid of badgers. I would like a machine gun.”
 
Responding to the article the CEO of the Badger Trust, Dominic Dyer, said:
 
“This article makes absurd claims about badgers killing lambs without presenting a shred of evidence to support them. Badgers are not active predators but opportunist scavengers whose main diet is earthworms. Unfortunately there has been a concerted propaganda campaign by the farming and ‘countryside’ lobby over the last few years to turn public opinion against the badger in order to try and justify the Conservative government’s failing cull policy.
 
“What this story really highlights is a tragic lack of good animal husbandry on behalf of a farm that is allowing hundreds of lambs to die. Badgers may well scavenge a carcass if they find one but it’s far more likely that these lambs have died of neglect and been scavenged by foxes. Despite having legal protection, the badger is one of the most persecuted wild animals in Britain, with thousands of them shot, snared, gassed or baited with dogs every year across the country. It is therefore utterly irresponsible for a national newspaper to print such unfounded claims as it simply encourages more of this kind of criminal behaviour.”
 
Also responding to the article the Chair of the Badger Trust, Peter Martin, said:
 
“With this article the Telegraph has plumbed new depths in standards of journalism. They have clearly distanced themselves from these rather asinine remarks by Lady Scarsdale but are nevertheless happy to exploit her preposterous claims and opinions in order to further their political agenda regarding the badger culls. These were clearly unguarded observations and probably made without much thought or consideration for the embarrassment they have caused her and the National Trust.
 
Ultimately, this article will backfire on its authors because the British public simply aren’t that gullible when it comes to wildlife and farming issues. Claims such as these show up the self-appointed guardians of our countryside as not only pitifully ignorant about wildlife ecology but also negligent in the care of their own livestock.”

 
Sally
End the badger cull says the HSI.
 
New Prime Minister, Theresa May, has appointed Andrea Leadsom as her new Environment Secretary.
 
This is the perfect opportunity—before any new licences are issued—for the new Minister to listen carefully to both scientific and public opinion, and to put an end to this inhumane, ineffective and costly cull.
 
Speak up for badgers by asking the new Minister to kill the cull today.
 
Almost 4,000 badgers have been killed since 2013 and the government is currently considering issuing up to 29 new licences to allow contractors to shoot badgers this autumn. The cull could be expanded to as many as nine counties, putting tens of thousands of badgers in dire danger.
 
Top scientists have spoken - the cull is wrong, and extending this terrible policy will cause yet more pointless suffering to our wildlife.
 
Right now, amidst the major uncertainties that lie ahead with Brexit, there is a real need, and an opportunity, for Theresa May’s new government to review DEFRA’s priorities and stop this ineffective, divisive and highly costly cull policy.
 
Tell the new Minister today that it’s time to listen to science and reason. It's time to stop the cull!
 
https://action.hsi.org/ea-action/action?ea.client.id=104&ea.campaign.id=53617&ea.tracking.id=email_badgers_2016&utm_medium=email...
 
Sally
Interesting that Prof Ranald Munro is also speaking against rolling out further culling - he assessed the first year's culls...
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/jul/13/badger-cull-expansion-flies-in-face-of-scientific-evidencee
 
Sally
Dear Theresa May , Andrea Leadsom, and Rachael Maskell / Natural England (licensors)
 
 
URGENT RE-THINK ON SOLVING CATTLE TB (DECISIONS Before Parliament ends 21st July ):-
1. ANY FURTHER BADGER CULLS ARE UTTERLY MEANINGLESS, THEY SIMPLY DO NOT WORK
2. 3 URGENTLY NEEDED FOR BETTER CATTLE TESTS :-
 
A. Nick Clegg just said NO to the Dorset cull 2 years ago .. it is long overdue that DEFRA explained that ALL the breakdowns supposedly "Due to badgers" are simply caused by newly infected early TB reactors (No Visible Lesions , so Unconfirmed reactors which DO Have TB )..hence from 6th April PRE- & POST-MOVEMENT CATTLE TESTS;
 
B. CHRONIC Herds, under restriction 5-10-16 years+ , such as Meurig Raymond , Minette Batters, Stephen James, even Princess Anne . Simply need a different test to find the skin test NON-reactor culprit:- late TB fast blood tests ENFER, ENFERPLEX, IDEXX Ab test (OIE Approved), or simply PCR for M. bovis in faecal swabs,
Cath REES of Notts Uni. has just found a fast "NEW BLOOD TEST FOR TB "(Google it);
 
C. the re-trial for EU approval of the CATTLE BCG VACCINATION with DIVA test, 68 % effective should be rolled out across whole counties as part of routine controls... on the understanding cannot go for export .
 
WELL, a few days is a long time in Politics, never mind a week .. so Congratulations on your New Jobs ! I used to live in Kettering so would have been one of your constituents !
 
Badgers and TB has long been Absolutely 100 % about POLITICS (NOT PERTURBATION + PSEUDOSCIENCE, see below).. the real science has been for some time that no-one has explained in 45 years how badgers MIGHT give cows a respiratory lung disease , so the badger contribution to cattle TB is actually ZERO, so even the £50 million cull of 11,000 badgers HAD NIL Effect on cattle TB.. reactive cull versus no cull areas same accumulated herd breakdowns 356 vs 358 (more detail in 2 versions below sent internationally).
 
WHICH IS WHY Continuing with the 3 current Pilot Culls plus maybe an additional 7 new ones , & 1 in Wales will be a crass betrayal of farmers, and waste of huge money/resources .. 3 pilots so far HAVE COST £ 30 MILLION .. WITH NIL EFFECT ON CATTLE TB .. WHICH INCLUDED £7 ON EXTRA POLICING (Protecting shooters from protestors or vice versa ! ??)..DO YOU REALLY WANT TO INCITE 10 MORE PILOT CULL CIVIL WARS THIS SUMMER !! ?
 
sincerely,
Martin Hancox , MA OXON , ex-government TB Panel
 
becky
Natural England is all set to approve more badger culling in England - yet more great expense and at what level will they stop? Is the badger set to become yet another rapidly declining species in England? A growing number believe culling to be pointless, inhumane and a waste of money.
 
A recent article, 'Dodgy data, bad science, rotten politics: why the badger cull is wrong and stupid,, by Tom Langton -can be read at:http://www.theecologist.org/campaigning/2987627/dodgy_data_bad_science_rotten_politics_why_the_badger_cull_is_wrong_and_stupid.html
 
becky
European Commission confirms Eurobadger view that bovine TB reduction in the UK and Ireland will only be achieved through cattle-based measures.
 
Following its launch in the European Parliament in Strasbourg on 14 April, Eurobadger, the new european badger protection network, met with senior representatives of the European Commission in Brussels on Thursday 21 April.
 
The meeting organised with the assistance of Eurogroup for Animals involved The Badger Trust and Team Broc; the coalition of Irish groups opposed to badger culling, together with the Acting Head of the European Commission's Directorate for Heath and Food Safety (Bernard Van – Goethem) and the Head of Disease Control (Francisco Javier Reviriego Gordejo).
 
Ecological consultant Tom Langton opened the meeting on behalf of Eurobadger with a presentation looking at the failure of the UK and Irish Governments to focus sufficient attention on tackling bovine TB in cattle, in view of their unsuccessful strategies of culling badgers for decades.
 
Responding to the presentation, Bernard Van-Goethem confirmed that the European Commission were not providing any EU funds to the UK Government to cull badgers and that the Commission would be looking carefully at the progress being made in bovine TB reduction in both the UK and Ireland.
 
EuroBadger raised fears with the European Commission over the huge number of cattle movements in the UK, compared to other Member States and how this remained a key factor for the spread of bovine TB. As he had commented to members of the EFRA Select Committee in Westminster in February 2013, Bernard Van-Goethem told EuroBadger that the only proven and successful way to eradicate bovine TB is through thorough TB testing, movement controls and where necessary, whole herd depopulation.
 
Responding to concerns about how an astonishing half of the annual 62.5 million Euro European bovine TB funding budget was being used in the UK, Bernard Van-Gothem accepted that the EU was making a major investment in UK bovine TB reduction and he confirmed that he held regular meetings with the DEFRA Chief Vet in Brussels to ensure these funds were being used to implement effective cattle based measures.
 
When pressed on the issue of gamma interferon testing for cattle, Bernard Van-Goethem confirmed that the European Food Safety Authority had found this test method when used in conjunction with the TB skin test, could result in the identification and removal of more TB infected cattle from herds.
 
He confirmed that the Commission was happy to see EU funds being used for greater use of gamma interferon testing, although it is yet to be approved for TB free disease free status within the EU or the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE).
 
Responding to the issues raised at the meeting, EuroBadger spokesperson and CEO of the Badger Trust Dominic Dyer said;
 
“The meeting with the European Commission was very constructive and positive. We are very pleased to see the increasing pressure on the UK and Irish Governments to focus their attention on proven cattle based measures to reduce the spread of bovine TB, rather than the continuation of the disastrous, cruel costly badger culls.
 
“The EU is spending a significant amount of its disease control budget on supporting the UK bovineTB eradication policy and as such it can have a major influence over its future direction. I am pleased to see that the Environment Secretary Liz Truss and the DEFRA Chief Vet Nigel Gibbons are coming under increasing pressure from the European Commission to show that EU funds are being used effectively to introduce tighter testing and cattle control measures to reduce the spread of bovine TB.
 
The view that the culling of badgers is a dangerous distraction from tackling the root cause of the spread of bovine TB in cattle is an important one. We welcome the opportunity to engage further the European Commission on this issue in the months ahead.”
 
becky
BOVINE TB IS AEROGENOUSLY SELF-MAINTAINING WITHIN THE CATTLE POPULATION /URGENT : PARLIAMENTARY QUESTIONS / COSTLY MEANINGLESS BADGER CULLS VERY IMMINENT ?!
 
Dear Jeremy Corbyn and Kerry McCarthy, Lord Krebs, ...... Caroline Lucas, Tim Farron, Douglas Carswell, Alex Salmond ,
 
Since farmers and vets are still wrongly "certain, that Badgers Are the main cause of the spread of TB", and c. 30 expressions of interest have been lodged with Natural England licensors, it is very likely Natural England WILL announce Licences for 7 or more Pilot culls, traditionally at 5 o'clock on Friday the 29th before the May day bank holiday !;
 
It would be extremely helpful if you could ask verbally at Prime Ministers Questions , or via Written Parliamentary Questions in the Commons and Lords , 3 key questions :-
 
1. Would the Prime Minister agree that since cattle TB is entirely a respiratory air-borne lung infection contracted via prolonged close contact in enclosed spaces, it cannot after all be coming from badgers ? (See 3. Transmission below);
 
2. Would the Prime Minister agree that the new cattle testing and movement restrictions introduced by DEFRA on the 6th of April to stop the spread of TB from hotspot areas is the clearest possible demonstration that cattle, not badgers are the main spreaders of TB within the cattle population (see 2. Inciting Civil war below);
 
3. Since farmers and vets still mistakenly believe that "Badgers are the main cause of the spread of TB", and details of the farmers who have applied to participate in the Devon Pilot Cull were "leaked" c. 2-3 weeks ago, why have Natural England / DEFRA , still not confirmed these allegedly "Vital and Urgent" New Pilot Cull Licences ? (see 1 . Political absurdity below);
 
I'd be more than happy to meet and discuss, sincerely, Martin Hancox.
 
becky
DO NOT LICENCE FURTHER BADGER CULLS, WESTERN DAILY PRESS ,18TH APRIL 2016
 
URGENT : - BADGER CULLS WILL NEVER WORK ; SO A BETRAYAL OF FARMERS TO LICENCE ANY MORE BADGER CULLS OR VACCINATIONS
 
Dear Prime Minister, Minister, DEFRA, Natural England,
 
Nick Clegg called off the 2014 Dorset cull at the 11th hour, he was uneasy it would work !
 
Natural England ought to refuse to licence any further culls , and DEFRA should simply explain to farmers that cattle, NOT Badgers, are the main cause of the spread of CATTLE TB after all !!
 
The 45 year old "Great Badgers and TB Debate" was finally solved on the 6th of April , with the introduction of tighter cattle movement controls. Defra's 28th August 2015 three consultations on measures to stop the spread of TB, actually recognised very belatedly, that the early TB cattle skin test reactors without confirmatory Visible Lung Lesions, DO in fact merely have early TB... they are not "perfectly healthy" after all. So, the majority of these herd breakdowns supposedly "due to badgers" , are actually caused by, and first identified by these so-called Unconfirmed reactor cattle. And the 90 % or so of such breakdowns spreading out from annual test hotspot areas are hence simply via local cattle movements. Some 20 million cattle moves /a, and since foot & mouth 2001, out of c. 450,000 cattle removed, some 260,000 such unconfirmed No Visible Lesion new early TB cases .
 
The very simple answer , somewhat resented by farmers, who still mistakenly think that "Badgers are the main cause of the spread of TB", is pre- and post-movement cattle testing, which has been working in Scotland since it went "OTF" , TB free in 2009 , incidentally without culling a single badger !
 
DEFRA still seem to think Badger Edge Vaccination work, but this is simply bonkers, since there are no armies of badgers marching outwards into Edge Areas.
 
The 3 Pilot badger culls so far have cost towards £30 million, including a disgraceful near £7 million on extra policing to protect shooters from animal rights activists (or vice versa !); Civil War in England's Green and pleasant land !. But out of the 3942 badgers culled , based on the ISG /RBCT cull data, only c. 1.6 % are likely to have been the "Super-infectious" badgers which might have posed a risk to cattle ie. a mere 66 from c. 450 sq.km. :- NIL Effect on cattle TB .These culls are a spectacular time and money. Even farmers now recognise that the £5 million Welsh IAA area trial badger vaccination of 4500 badgers in 288 sq.km. has had Nil effect either. And unbelievably, no-one in 45 years research have actually shown how badgers might give cows a respiratory lung disease in the first place.
 
So it is to be hoped that DEFRA/ Natural England , as a matter of scientific, intellectual and moral integrity, will refuse to Licence any further utterly meaningless badger culls or badger vaccinations.
 
 
Sincerely, Martin Hancox, MA Oxon, ex-government TB Panel.
 
SEE Death of Debate, WWW.BADGERSANDTB.COM
 

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